The effect of open green space on the stress level of Bogor Botanical Garden visitors

Yuriko Asahiro, Arzyana Sunkar, Jarwadi Budi Hernowo


Stress is a global phenomenon that has become a part of everyday life. Stress can be triggered by the presence of stressors. In Indonesia, the prevalence of psychological stress keeps increasing. This study aims to analyze the perceived restoration effect of green open parks on the stress levels of Bogor Botanical Gardens visitors. A survey of 100 visitors of Bogor Botanical Garden was conducted based on the Perceived Stress Scale. Data on respondent characteristics and stress levels were analyzed using descriptive analysis, the visitor's characteristics that affected their stress levels were analyzed using stepwise linear regression and analysis of variance, and the effect of having a garden and the proximity to open green space on the visitor's stress levels were identified using analysis of variance. The respondents who felt low, medium, and high-stress levels, were 22%, 73%, and 5% respectively. The majority of the respondents perceived Bogor Botanical Garden as restorative. Factors that significantly affect the stress level of respondents are age and purpose of visit. The older the respondent, the lower their stress level tends to be. Visitors who visit for exercise/health activities have significantly lower stress levels than for other visits. In this study, no significant relationship was found between garden ownership and proximity to green parks on the stress level of the respondents.


Affandi SD, Halimatussadiah A, Asrofani FW. 2020. Visitors’ preferences on the characteristics of bogor botanical gardens. Sustain. 12(22):1–18. doi:10.3390/su12229489.
Aldwin CM. 1991. Does Age Affect the Stress and Coping Process? Implications of Age Differences in Perceived Control. J Gerontol. 46(4):P174–P180. doi:10.1093/geronj/46.4.P174.
Ambarwati PD, Pinilih SS, Astuti RT. 2019. Gambaran tingkat stres mahasiswa. J Keperawatan Jiwa. 5(1):40. doi:10.26714/jkj.5.1.2017.40-47.
American Psychological Association. 2018. Stress in America: Generation Z. Stress in AmericaTM Survei.
Anakwenze U, Zuberi D. 2013. Mental health and poverty in the inner city. Heal Soc Work. 38(3):147–157. doi:10.1093/hsw/hlt013.
Backhaus I, Varela AR, Khoo S, Siefken K, Crozier A, Begotaraj E, Fischer F, Wiehn J, Lanning BA, Lin PH, et al. 2020. Associations Between Social Capital and Depressive Symptoms Among College Students in 12 Countries: Results of a Cross-National Study. Front Psychol. 11:644. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00644.
Beil K, Hanes D. 2013. The influence of urban natural and built environments on physiological and psychological measures of stress- A pilot study. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 10(4):1250–1267. doi:10.3390/ijerph10041250.
Van den Berg M, Van Poppel M, Van Kamp I, Andrusaityte S, Balseviciene B, Cirach M, Danileviciute A, Ellis N, Hurst G, Masterson D, et al. 2016. Visiting green space is associated with mental health and vitality: A cross-sectional study in four european cities. Heal Place. 38:8–15. doi:10.1016/j.healthplace.2016.01.003.
Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan. 2013. Riset Kesehatan Dasar 2013. Jakarta (ID): Kementerian Kesehatan RI.
Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan. 2019. Laporan Nasional Riskesdas 2018. Jakarta (ID): Lembaga Penerbit Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan.
Carrus G, Scopelliti M, Lafortezza R, Colangelo G, Ferrini F, Salbitano F, Agrimi M, Portoghesi L, Semenzato P, Sanesi G. 2015. Go greener, feel better? The positive effects of biodiversity on the well-being of individuals visiting urban and peri-urban green areas. Landsc Urban Plan. 134:221-228. doi:10.1016/j.landurbplan.2014.10.022.
Cohen S, Janicki-Deverts D, Miller GE. 2007. Psychological stress and disease. J Am Med Assoc. 298(14):1685–1687. doi:10.1001/jama.298.14.1685.
Cohen S, Kamarck T, Mermelstein R. 1983. A Global Measure of Perceived Stress. J Heal Soc Behav. 24(4):385–396. doi:10.2307/2136404.
Colman AM. 2015. A Dictionary of Psychology 4th Ed. Oxford (UK): Oxford University Press.
Dahlkvist E, Engström M, Nilsson A. 2020. Residents’ use and perceptions of residential care facility gardens: A behaviour mapping and conversation study. Int J Older People Nurs. 15(1):e12283. doi:10.1111/opn.12283.
Dinda S, Ghosh S. 2021. Perceived benefits, aesthetic preferences and willingness to pay for visiting urban parks: A case study in Kolkata, India. Int J Geoheritage Park. 9(1):36-50. doi:10.1016/j.ijgeop.2020.12.007.
Dzhambov AM, Markevych I, Tilov BG, Dimitrova DD. 2018. Residential greenspace might modify the effect of road traffic noise exposure on general mental health in students. Urban For Urban Green. 34(15):233–239. doi:10.1016/j.ufug.2018.06.022.
Ekkel ED, de Vries S. 2017. Nearby green space and human health: Evaluating accessibility metrics. Landsc Urban Plan. 157:214-220. doi:10.1016/j.landurbplan.2016.06.008.
Fauk NK, Ernawati, Dent E, Asa GA, Ward PR. 2022. Impact of COVID-19 Lockdowns on the Activity and Mental Health of Older People in Indonesia: A Qualitative Study. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 19(20):13115. doi:10.3390/ijerph192013115.
Felappi JF, Sommer JH, Falkenberg T, Terlau W, Kötter T. 2020. Green infrastructure through the lens of “One Health”: A systematic review and integrative framework uncovering synergies and trade-offs between mental health and wildlife support in cities. Sci Total Environ. 748:141589. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.141589.
Gaffar V, Abdullah T, Putri DN. 2018. How can social media marketing create positive image of nature-based tourist destination in Indonesia?. Bus Manag Rev. 9(4):476–482.
Gamayanti W, Mahardianisa M, Syafei I. 2018. Self Disclosure dan Tingkat Stres pada Mahasiswa yang sedang Mengerjakan Skripsi. Psympathic J Ilm Psikol. 5(1):115–130. doi:10.15575/psy.v5i1.2282.
Ganesan Y, Talwar P, Fauzan N, Oon YB. 2018. A Study on Stress Level and Coping Strategies among Undergraduate Students. J Cogn Sci Hum Dev. 3(2):37–47. doi:10.33736/jcshd.787.2018.
Geng D, Innes J, Wu W, Wang G. 2021. Impacts of COVID-19 pandemic on urban park visitation: a global analysis. J For Res. 32(2):553-567. doi:10.1007/s11676-020-01249-w.
Gustems-Carnicer J, Calderón C, Calderón-Garrido D. 2019. Stress, coping strategies and academic achievement in teacher education students. Eur J Teach Educ. 42(3):375-390. doi:10.1080/02619768.2019.1576629.
Hanai T, Oguchi T. 2016. Where do Stressed People Prefer Travelling to: Rural Resorts or Urban Resorts? In: Chaperon S, Nicola M, editor. Tourism in Contemporary Cities. Proceedings of the International Tourism Studies Association Conference. 2016 August 16-17; University of Greenwich, London. London: University of Greenwich. 51–64.
Hazer M, Formica MK, Dieterlen S, Morley CP. 2018. The relationship between self-reported exposure to greenspace and human stress in Baltimore, MD. Landsc Urban Plan. 169(July 2017):47–56. doi:10.1016/j.landurbplan.2017.08.006.
Hedblom M, Knez I, Gunnarsson B. 2017. Bird Diversity Improves the Well-Being of City Residents. In: Ecology and Conservation of Birds in Urban Environments. Cham: Springer International Publishing. 287–306. 10.1007/978-3-319-43314-1_15.
Houlden V, Porto de Albuquerque J, Weich S, Jarvis S. 2019. A spatial analysis of proximate greenspace and mental wellbeing in London. Appl Geogr. 109(June):102036. doi:10.1016/j.apgeog.2019.102036.
Irvine KN, Warber SL, Devine-Wright P, Gaston KJ. 2013. Understanding urban green space as a health resource: A qualitative comparison of visit motivation and derived effects among park users in sheffield, UK. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 10(1). doi:10.3390/ijerph10010417.
Iwata M, Ota KT, Duman RS. 2013. The inflammasome: Pathways linking psychological stress, depression, and systemic illnesses. Brain Behav Immun. 31:105–114. doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2012.12.008.
Joshi AR, Vaidya SM. 2017. Evaluation of perceived stress in bus drivers of Pune city. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 7(1):90–93. doi:10.5455/njppp.2017.7.0720805082016.
Kaligis F, Indraswari MT, Ismail RI. 2020. Stress during COVID-19 pandemic: Mental health condition in Indonesia. Med J Indones. 29(4). doi:10.13181/mji.bc.204640.
Kaplan R, Kaplan S. 1989. The experience of nature: a psychological perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Khasanah DR, Indarko HAA, Rosilawati I, Rejeki DSS. 2021. Pengaruh Pembatasan Sosial sebagai Upaya Menekan Penularan Covid-19 terhadap Kondisi Kesehatan Mental Remaja: Literature Review. J Kesehat Masy Indones. 16(4). doi:10.26714/jkmi.16.4.2021.260-268.
Kim G, Miller PA. 2019. The impact of green infrastructure on human health and well-being: The example of the Huckleberry Trail and the Heritage Community Park and Natural Area in Blacksburg, Virginia. Sustain Cities Soc. 48. doi:10.1016/j.scs.2019.101562.
Klinic Community Health Centre. 2010. Stress & Stress Management. Winnipeg: Klinic Community Health Centre.
Lanki T, Siponen T, Ojala A, Korpela K, Pennanen A, Tiittanen P, Tsunetsugu Y, Kagawa T, Tyrväinen L. 2017. Acute effects of visits to urban green environments on cardiovascular physiology in women: A field experiment. Environ Res. 159. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2017.07.039.
Lei L, Zhu H, Li Y, Dai T, Zhao S, Zhang X, Muchu X, Su S. 2021. Prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorders and associated factors one month after the outbreak of the COVID-19 among the public in southwestern China: a cross-sectional study. BMC Psychiatry. 21(1). doi:10.1186/s12888-021-03527-1.
Mackay GJ, Neill JT. 2010. The effect of “green exercise” on state anxiety and the role of exercise duration, intensity, and greenness: A quasi-experimental study. Psychol Sport Exerc. 11(3):238–245. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2010.01.002.
Maller C, Townsend M, Pryor A, Brown P, St Leger L. 2006. Healthy nature healthy people: “contact with nature” as an upstream health promotion intervention for populations. Health Promot Int. 21(1):45–54. doi:10.1093/heapro/dai032.
Manita E, Mawarpury M, Khairani M, Sari K. 2019. Hubungan Stres dan Kesejahteraan (Well-being) dengan Moderasi Kebersyukuran. Gadjah Mada J Psychol. 5(2):178. doi:10.22146/gamajop.50121.
Marselle MR, Irvine KN, Lorenzo-Arribas A, Warber SL. 2015. Moving beyond green: Exploring the relationship of environment type and indicators of perceived environmental quality on emotional well-being following group walks. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 12(1):106–130. doi:10.3390/ijerph120100106.
Matos M, McEwan K, Kanovský M, Halamová J, Steindl SR, Ferreira N, Linharelhos M, Rijo D, Asano K, Vilas SP, et al. 2021. The role of social connection on the experience of COVID-19 related posttraumatic growth and stress. PLoS One. 16(12 December). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0261384.
Mennis J, Mason M, Ambrus A. 2018. Urban greenspace is associated with reduced psychological stress among adolescents: A Geographic Ecological Momentary Assessment (GEMA) analysis of activity space. Landsc Urban Plan. 174(June 2017):1–9. doi:10.1016/j.landurbplan.2018.02.008.
Nath TK, Zhe Han SS, Lechner AM. 2018. Urban green space and well-being in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Urban For Urban Green. 36:34–41. doi:10.1016/j.ufug.2018.09.013.
Nghiem TPL, Wong KL, Jeevanandam L, Chang CC, Tan LYC, Goh Y, Carrasco LR. 2021. Biodiverse urban forests, happy people: Experimental evidence linking perceived biodiversity, restoration, and emotional wellbeing. Urban For Urban Green. 59. doi:10.1016/j.ufug.2021.127030.
Orstad SL, Szuhany K, Tamura K, Thorpe LE, Jay M. 2020. Park proximity and use for physical activity among urban residents: Associations with mental health. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 17(13). doi:10.3390/ijerph17134885.
Ozamiz-Etxebarria N, Dosil-Santamaria M, Picaza-Gorrochategui M, Idoiaga-Mondragon N. 2020. Stress, anxiety, and depression levels in the initial stage of the COVID-19 outbreak in a population sample in the northern Spain. Cad Saude Publica. 36(4). doi:10.1590/0102-311X00054020.
Öztürk Çopur E, Karasu F. 2021. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the quality of life and depression, anxiety, and stress levels of individuals above the age of eighteen. Perspect Psychiatr Care. 57(4). doi:10.1111/ppc.12730.
Park BJ, Shin CS, Shin WS, Chung CY, Lee SH, Kim DJ, Kim YH, Park CE. 2020. Effects of forest therapy on health promotion among middle-aged women: Focusing on physiological indicators. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 17(12):1–15. doi:10.3390/ijerph17124348.
Pazhouhanfar M, Mustafa Kamal MS. 2014. Effect of predictors of visual preference as characteristics of urban natural landscapes in increasing perceived restorative potential. Urban For Urban Green. 13(1):145–151. doi:10.1016/j.ufug.2013.08.005.
Pretty J, Barton J, Pervez Bharucha Z, Bragg R, Pencheon D, Wood C, Depledge MH. 2016. Improving health and well-being independently of GDP: Dividends of greener and prosocial economies. Int J Environ Health Res. 26(1). doi:10.1080/09603123.2015.1007841.
Roe JJ, Aspinall PA, Thompson CW. 2017. Coping with stress in deprived urban neighborhoods: What is the role of green space according to life stage? Front Psychol. 8(OCT). doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01760.
Scott SB, Sliwinski MJ, Blanchard-Fields F. 2013. Age differences in emotional responses to daily stress: The role of timing, severity, and global perceived stress. Psychol Aging. 28(4). doi:10.1037/a0034000.
Sonntag-Öström E, Nordin M, Lundell Y, Dolling A, Wiklund U, Karlsson M, Carlberg B, Slunga Järvholm L. 2014. Restorative effects of visits to urban and forest environments in patients with exhaustion disorder. Urban For Urban Green. 13(2). doi:10.1016/j.ufug.2013.12.007.
Stults-Kolehmainen MA, Sinha R. 2014. The effects of stress on physical activity and exercise. Sport Med. 44(1). doi:10.1007/s40279-013-0090-5.
Tyrväinen L, Ojala A, Korpela K, Lanki T, Tsunetsugu Y, Kagawa T. 2014. The influence of urban green environments on stress relief measures: A field experiment. J Environ Psychol. 38:1–9. doi:10.1016/j.jenvp.2013.12.005.
Ugolini F, Massetti L, Calaza-Martínez P, Cariñanos P, Dobbs C, Ostoic SK, Marin AM, Pearlmutter D, Saaroni H, Šaulienė I, et al. 2020. Effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the use and perceptions of urban green space: An international exploratory study. Urban For Urban Green. 56. doi:10.1016/j.ufug.2020.126888.
Ulrich RS. 1983. Aesthetic and Affective Response to Natural Environment. Di dalam: Behavior and the Natural Environment. Boston, MA: Springer US. hlm. 85–125.
Wang KC, Hsieh AT, Yeh YC, Tsai CW. 2004. Who is the decision-maker: The parents or the child in group package tours? Tour Manag. 25(2). doi:10.1016/S0261-5177(03)00093-1.
Wang R, Zhao J, Meitner MJ, Hu Y, Xu X. 2019. Characteristics of urban green spaces in relation to aesthetic preference and stress recovery. Urban For Urban Green. 41. doi:10.1016/j.ufug.2019.03.005.
Wolf ID, Wohlfart T. 2014. Walking, hiking and running in parks: A multidisciplinary assessment of health and well-being benefits. Landsc Urban Plan. 130(1). doi:10.1016/j.landurbplan.2014.06.006.
Wood E, Harsant A, Dallimer M, de Chavez AC, McEachan RRC, Hassall C. 2018. Not all green space is created equal: Biodiversity predicts psychological restorative benefits from urban green space. Front Psychol. 9(NOV):1–13. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02320.
Wood L, Hooper P, Foster S, Bull F. 2017. Public green spaces and positive mental health – investigating the relationship between access, quantity and types of parks and mental wellbeing. Heal Place. 48(November 2016):63–71. doi:10.1016/j.healthplace.2017.09.002.
Xie J, Luo S, Furuya K, Sun D. 2020. Urban parks as green buffers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Sustain. 12(17). doi:10.3390/SU12176751.
Xiong J, Lipsitz O, Nasri F, Lui LMW, Gill H, Phan L, Chen-Li D, Iacobucci M, Ho R, Majeed A, et al. 2020. Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on mental health in the general population: A systematic review. J Affect Disord. 277(June):55–64. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2020.08.001.
Yigitcanlar T, Kamruzzaman M, Teimouri R, Degirmenci K, Alanjagh F. 2020. Association between park visits and mental health in a developing country context: The case of Tabriz, Iran. Landsc Urban Plan. 199. doi:10.1016/j.landurbplan.2020.103805.
Young C, Hofmann M, Frey D, Moretti M, Bauer N. 2020. Psychological restoration in urban gardens related to garden type, biodiversity and garden-related stress. Landsc Urban Plan. 198. doi:10.1016/j.landurbplan.2020.103777.


Yuriko Asahiro (Primary Contact)
Arzyana Sunkar
Jarwadi Budi Hernowo
Author Biographies

Arzyana Sunkar, Department of Forest Resources Conservation and Ecotourism, Faculty of Forestry and EnvironmentIPB University

Lecturer at Department of Forest Resources Conservation and Ecotourism, Faculty of Forestry and EnvironmentIPB University

Jarwadi Budi Hernowo, Department of Forest Resources Conservation and Ecotourism, Faculty of Forestry and EnvironmentIPB University

Lecturer at Department of Forest Resources Conservation and Ecotourism, Faculty of Forestry and EnvironmentIPB University

AsahiroY., SunkarA. and Budi HernowoJ. (2023) “The effect of open green space on the stress level of Bogor Botanical Garden visitors”, Jurnal Pengelolaan Sumberdaya Alam dan Lingkungan (Journal of Natural Resources and Environmental Management). Bogor, ID, 13(2), pp. 211-221. doi: 10.29244/jpsl.13.2.211-221.

Article Details