Large Mammals Occupancy in Geothermal Power Plant Activities

Bakhtiar Aji, Mirza Dikari Kusrini, Dede Aulia Rahman


Geothermal as one of renewable resources, provide alternative to address the ever-increasing energy demand. Most of the sources are located in forest ecosystem, on which ecological impact took place. PT Supreme Energi Rantau Dedap (SERD) is geothermal power plant project located in protected forest of Bukit Jambul Gunung Patah, South Sumatera. To investigate the large mammal’s species richness and its occupancy, the research observe data from SERD camera trap data installed during exploration and construction phases. Data are then analyzed with single season occupancy modelling with habitat changes (distance), light and elevation as the impact parameters. There are 13, out of 14, large mammals that captured by the camera trap and one was identified on direct encounter. Mostly, the best occupancy model is with constants covariate. Hog badger and muntjac constantly apparent as high occupancy both in naïve occupancy and model result. Four species occupancies are affected by geothermal power plant activity, they are: surili, forest pig, tapir and hog badger. The result showed that during the development phase, large mammals still inhabited the powerplant area despite the fact that some species responded negatively against the impact. Meanwhile, during the construction phase the species richness is tend to be higher but the detection level is lower with varied occupancy level for each large mammals’ species.


Allen ML, Sibarani MC, Utoyo L, Krofel M. 2020. Terrestrial mammal community richness and temporal overlap between tigers and other carnivores in Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park, Sumatra. Animal Biodiversity and Conservation, 43.1: 97–107
Amalisana B, Rokhmatullah, Hernina. 2017. Land Cover Analysis by Using Pixel-Based and Object-Based Image Classification Method in Bogor. The 5th Geoinformation Science Symposium 2017 (GSS 2017)
Ario A. 2007. Javan Leopard (Panthera pardus melas) Among Human Activities: Preliminiary Asessment on the Carrying Capacity of Mt. Salak Forest Area Mt Halimun Salak NP. Conservation International. Jakarta
Augeri D. 2004. Effects of disturbance on Malayan sun bearhabitat use. Paper presented at the International Conference on Conservation Science, Cambridge, UK
Baba ST. 2015. Comparison and Analysis of the Pixel-based and Object-Oriented Methods for Land Cover Classification with ETM+ Data. IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology (IOSR-JESTFT) olume 9, Issue 2 Ver. II (Feb 2015), PP 48-53
Beier P. 2006. Effects of artificial night lighting on terrestrial mammals. In Ecological Consequences of Artificial Night Lighting, edited by C. Rich and T. Longcore, pp. 19–42. Washington, D.C.: Island Press.
Budiharta S, Erik Meijaard, DLA Gaveau, MJ Struebig, A Wilting, S Kramer-Schadt, J Niedballa, N Raes, M Maron, KA Wilson. 2018. Restoration to offset the impacts of developments at a landscape scale reveals opportunities, challenges and toughchoices. Global Environ Ch 52: 152-161.
Ciach M, Frohlich A. 2019. Ungulates in the city: light pollution and open habitats predict the probability of roe deer occurring in an urban environment. Urban Ecosystems (2019) 22:513–523
Dewan Energi Nasional (DEN). 2019. Indonesia Energy Outlook. Sekretariat Jendral Dewan Energi Nasional. Jakarta
Duff AB, Hall RA, Marsh CW. 1984. A Survey of Wildlife in and Around a Commercial Tree Plantation in Sabah. Malays. For. 47, 197–213.
Fiske I and Chandler R 2011. “Unmarked: An R Package for Fitting Hierarchical Models of Wildlife Occurrence and Abundance.” Journal of Statistical Software, 43(10), 1–23.
Heydon MJ. 1994. The Ecology and Management of Rain Forest Ungulates in Sabah, Malaysia: Implications of Forest Disturbance. University of Aberdeen. Aberdeen.
Jenning AP, Naim H, Advento AD, Aryawan AAK, Sudharto PS, Caliman J, Verwilghen A, and Veron G. 2015. Diversity and occupancy of small carnivores within oil palm plantations in central Sumatra, Indonesia. Mamm Res (2015) 60:181–188
Kamler JF, Songsasen N, Jenks K, Srivathsa A, Sheng L, Kunkel K. 2015. Cuon alpinus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T5953A72477893. 2015. (accessed 18 April 2021).
Kartika D, Pudyatmoko S, Wawandono B N, and Utami P. 2018. Respon Komunitas Burung terhadap Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Panas Bumi (PLTP) Kamojang, Bandung, Jawa Barat. Jurnal Ilmu Kehutanan 12: 156-171
Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup dan Kehutanan (KLHK). 2019. Panduan identifikasi jenis satwa liar dilindungi: Mamalia. Jakarta
Larsen T.H. (ed.). 2016. Core Standardized Methods for Rapid Biological Field Assessment. Conservation International, Arlington, VA
Laumonier Y, Uryu Y, Stuwe M, Budiman S, and Hadian O. 2010. Eco-floristic sectors and deforestation threats in Sumatra: identifying new conservation area network priorities for ecosystem-based land use planning. Biodivers Conserv (2010) 19:1153–1174
Lynam AJ, Tantipisanuh N, Chutipong W, Ngoprasert D, Baker MC, Cutter P, Gale G, Kitamura S, Steinmetz R, Sukmasuang R, and Thunhikorn S. 2012. Comparative sensitivity to environmental variation and human disturbance of Asian tapirs (Tapirus indicus) and other wild ungulates in Thailand. Integrative Zoology; 7: 389–399
Mackenzie DI, Nichols JD, Royle JA, Pollock KH, Bailey LL dan Hines JE. 2006. Occupancy estimation and modelling: inferring patterns and dynamics of species occurrence. Academic, London
Mackenzie DI, Nichols JD, Lachman GB, Droege S, Royle JA, and Langtimm CA. 2002. Estimating Site Occupancy Rates When Detection Probabilities Are Less Than One. Ecology. 83(8: 2248–2255
Mardiastuti, A. 2018. Ekologi Satwa Pada Lanskap yang didominasi Manusia. IPB Press. Bogor
Mazerolle MJ. 2006. Improving data analysis in herpetology: using Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC) to assess the strength of biological hypotheses. Amphibia-Reptilia 27 (2006): 169-180
Meijaard E, Dennis R and Saputro B. 2019. Rapid Environmental and Social Assessment of Geothermal Power Development in Conservation Forest Areas of Indonesia. PROFOR, Washington, DC
Meijaard E, Sheil D, Nasi R, Augeri D, Rosenbaum B, Iskandar D, Setyawati T, Lammertink ., Rachmatika, I, Wong A, Soehartono T, Stanley S, O’Brien T. 2005. Life After Logging: Reconciling Wildlife Conservation and Production Forestry in Indonesian Borneo. Center for International Forestry Research, Jakarta, Indonesia
Mossbrucker A. M. 2020. Sumatran Mammals: Photographs from Camera Traps in the Bukit Tigapuluh Landscape. Frankfurt Zoological Society, Jambi, Indonesia.Purwadaria T, Gunawan L, Gunawan AW. 2010. The production of nata colored by Monascus purpureus Jl pigments as functional food. Microbiol Indones. 4(1):6-10. doi: 10.5454/mi.4.3.1.
Nurvianto S, Imron MA, and Herzog S. 2015. The Influence of Anthropogenic Activities and Availability of Prey on the Distribution of Dholes in a Dry Deciduous Forest of East Java, Indonesia. Asian Journal of Conservation Biology (4) No. 1, pp. 26-36
Scotson L, Fredriksson G, Ngoprasert D, Wong W-M, Fieberg J (2017) Projecting range-wide sun bear population trends using tree cover and camera-trap bycatch data. PLoS ONE 12(9): e0185336.
Sudrajat and Putro MD. 2019. The contribution of forest remnants within industrial area to threatened mammal conservation: A case study in liquefied natural gas industry in Bontang, Indonesia. Biodiversitas Volume 20: 2257-2265
Sugiharta A. 2016. Buku Informasi Pemanfaatan Jasa Lingkungan Panas Bumi di Hutan Konservasi. Direktorat Pemanfaatan Jasa Lingkungan Hutan Konservasi, Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup dan Kehutanan. Bogor
Sunarto S, Kelly M J, Parakkasi A, and Hutajulu M B. 2014. Cat coexistence in central Sumatra: ecological characteristics, spatial and temporal overlap, and implications for management. Journal of Zoology 296 (2015) 104–115
Suyanto and Semiadi G. 2004. Keragaman Mamalia Disekitar Daerah Penyangga Taman Nasional Gunung Halimun, Kecamatan Cipanas, Kabupaten Lebak. Berita Biologi 7(1). 87-94
Steidl RJ and Anthony RG. 2000. Experimental Effects of Human Activity on Breeding Bald Eagles. Ecological Applicationis, 10(1), 2000, pp. 258-268
Steenweg R, Hebblewhite M, Whittington J, Lukacs P, and Mckelvey K. 2017. Sampling Scales Define Occupancy and Underlying Occupancy–Abundance Relationships in Animals. Ecology, 0(0), 2017, pp. 1–12
Terborgh J. 1992. Maintenance of diversity in tropical forests. Biotropica 24:283-292.
Timothy G, O’Brien dan Margaret FK. 2020. Birds and mammals of the Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park, Sumatra, Indonesia. Oryx Vol. 30: 207-217
Watkins G, Atkinson R, Canfield E, Corrales D, Dixon J, Factor S, Hardner J, Hausman H, Hawken I, Huppman R, Josse C, Langstroth R, Pilla E, Quintero J, Radford G, Rees C, Rice D and Villalba A. 2015. Guidance for Assessing and Managing Biodiversity Impacts and Risks in Inter-American Development Bank Supported Operations. Inter-American Development Bank.
Welsh AH, Lindenmayer DB dan Donnelly CF. 2013. Fitting and Interpreting Occupancy Models. PLoS ONE 8(1):e52015
Whittaker D and Knight RL. 1998. Understanding Wildlife Responses to Humans. Wildlife Society Bulletin, Vol. 26, No. 2. pp. 312-317
Yaap B, Magrach A, Clements GR, McClure CJW, Paoli GD, and Laurance WF. 2016. Large Mammal Use of Linear Remnant Forests in an Industrial Pulpwood Plantation in Sumatra, Indonesia. Tropical Conservation Science 9(4): 13.


Bakhtiar Aji (Primary Contact)
Mirza Dikari Kusrini
Dede Aulia Rahman
Author Biographies

Mirza Dikari Kusrini, IPB University

Forestry and Environment Faculty

Dede Aulia Rahman, IPB University

Fakultas Kehutanan dan Lingkungan IPB

AjiB., KusriniM. D. and RahmanD. A. (2022) “Large Mammals Occupancy in Geothermal Power Plant Activities”, Jurnal Pengelolaan Sumberdaya Alam dan Lingkungan (Journal of Natural Resources and Environmental Management). Bogor, ID, 12(2), pp. 317-329. doi: 10.29244/jpsl.12.2.317-329.

Article Details