Ufuoma Akpovwovwo


The mangrove ecosystem is not exempted from the fundamental interlinkages of components ensuring their functionality and development. Proper understanding of the interrelations between sediment parameters and their potential influence on mangrove growth is limited. This study examined mangrove structure across South western Nigeria, their growth dynamics, successional stage and relationship with the underlying sediments. Vegetation measurements and soil sampling (0-30cm) were carried out in one hundred quadrats of 20m by 20m. Sediments underwent laboratory analysis using standard procedures. Multiple regression was used to evaluate the relationship between the sediments and structural parameters at the 0.05 significance level. Ongoing degradation was detected, with evidence of selective harvesting targeted in the critical younger classes of <6cm, 6.1-9cm and 9.1-13cm.  Phosphorus, magnesium, pH, salinity, sodium, silt and organic carbon were significant factors, contributing approximately 53 percent to the height. Electrical conductivity, organic carbon, salinity, total acidity, pH and silt were significant factors, contributing approximately 56 percent to the girth. The mangrove forests, though at a matured stage, are endangered. Sediment parameters, especially texture, have a significant influence on mangrove growth. Preparation of specialised sediment treatments for mangrove regrowth sites and also the setting up of conservation sites should be adopted.


Abam, TKS. 2001 Regional hydrological research perspectives in the Niger Delta. Hydrological Sciences, 46:
Abere, SA. & Ekeke, BA. 2011 The Nigerian Mangrove and Wildlife Development. Proceedings of the 1st international Technology, Education and Environment Conference, Pp 824-834
Bosire, JO., Kairo, JG., Kazungu, J., Koedan, N.& Dahdouh-Guebas, F. 2005 Predation on propagules regulates regeneration in a high density reforested mangrove plantation. Marine Ecology. Vol. 299: 149-155.
Bouyoucous, GJ. 1934 A recalibration of the hydrometer method for making mechanical analysis of soils. Agronomy Journal 43:435- 438
Conti, LA, Sampaio de Arauja, CA & Cunha-Lignon, M. 2016 Spatial database modelling for mangrove forests mapping; examples of two estuarine systems in Brazil. Model Earth Systems and Environment. 2: 73
Dı ´az, BM. & Blackburn, GA. 2003 Remote sensing of mangrove biophysical properties: evidence from a laboratory simulation of the possible effects of background variation on spectral vegetation indices. International Journal of Remote Sensing. 24:53–73
Ebigwai, JK. & Akomaye, F, 2014 Species Diversity and regeneration potential of some mixed mangrove forests in Escravos, Delta state, Nigeria. Research journal of Forestry. 8:34-47
Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). 1994 Mangrove forest management guidelines. FAO Forestry Paper No. 117. Rome.
Franklin, JF., Spies, T.A, Van Pelt R., Carey, AB, Thornburgh, DA, Rae Berg, D., Lindenmayer, DB., Harmon, ME, Keeton, WS, Shaw, DC, Bible, K & Chen, J. 2002 Disturbances and structural development of natural forest ecosystems with silvicultural implications, using Douglas-fir forests as an example. Forest Ecology and Management 155:399–423.
Green, EP., Mumby PJ., Edwards, AJ., Clark CD. & Ellis, AC., 1997
Estimating leaf area index of mangroves from satellite data.
Aquatic Botany 58:11–19
Iloeje, N. P. 1981 A New Geography of Nigeria, Longman., Lagos.
James, GK., Adegoke, JO, Saba, E, Nwilo, P, Akinyede, J. 2007."Satellite-based Assessment of the Extent and Changes in the Mangrove Ecosystem of the Niger Delta," Marine Geodesy 30: 259
Kairo, JG., Dahdouh – Guebas, F., Gwada, PO., Ochieng, C. & Koedan, N., 2002. Regeneration status of Mangrove forests in Mida creek, Kenya: A Compromised or Secured future? Ambio. 31:7-8.
Kathiresan, K., Rajendran, N. & Thangadurai, G. 1996. Growth of mangrove seedlings in the intertidal area of Vellar estuary, southeast coast of India. Indian Journal of Marine Science, 25: 240-243.
Kusmana, C and Sukristijiono (2016) Mangrove resource uses by local community in Indonesia. Journal of Natural Resources and Environmental Management, 6 (2): 217-224
Lin, G. & Sternberg, LSL 1993. Effects of salinity fluctuation on photosynthetic gas exchange and plant growth of the red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle L.). Journal of Experimental Botany, 44: 9-16.
Lugo, AE. & Snedaker, SC. 1974. The Ecology of Mangroves. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 5: 39-64
Macnae, W., 1968. A general account of the fauna and flora of the mangrove swamps and forests in the Indo-West-Pacific Region. Advances in Marine Biology. 6: 73-270.
McElhinny, C. 2002. Forest and Woodland as an index for Biodiversity: Review. Department of Forestry, Australian National University, Action Act, 0200.
McKee, KL 2002. Trophic Structure and Ecological Significance. In Feller I.C and Sitnik, M (eds), Mangrove Ecology: A Manual for a Field Course, sponsored by the Smithsonian Institutes of Caribbean Coral Reef Program in Cooperation with the Belize’s Department of Fisheries, Department of Forestry, and the Institute of Marine Studies of the University of Belize.
Mohammed, MOS., Neukermans, G., Kairo, JG., Dahdouh-Guebas, F., & Koedam, N. 2009. Mangrove forests in a peri-urban setting. The case of Mombasa (Kenya). Wetlands Ecology and Management 17: 243-255.
Naidoo, G. (1980) Effect of Salinity and Nitrogen on growth and water relations in the mangrove, Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh. New Phytologist 107: 317-325.
Odemerho, FO. 2007. The Geology of Delta state. In F.O. Odemerho, OD., Awaritefe, AO., Atubi, BA. Ugbomeh, & SI. Efe (Eds). Delta State in Maps (pp 1-8) Abraka, Department of Geography and Regional planning, Delta state University.
Pribadi W, Kartiasih F. 2020. Environmental quality and poverty in Indonesia. 10(1): 89-97. 89- 97.
Robertson, AI. & Duke, NC. 1990. Mangrove fish-communities in tropical Queensland, Australia. Spatial and temporal patterns in densities, biomass and communities structure, Marine Biology 104: 369-379.
Saenger, P. & Bellan, MF. 1995. The Mangrove Vegetation of the Atlantic Coast of Africa. Toulouse, France. University of Toulouse Press.
Seedo, K.A., Abido, M.S., Salih, A. & Abahussain, A. 2017. Structure and composition of mangrove associations in Tubli bay of Bahrain as affected by municipal wastewater discharge and anthropogenic sedimentation. International Journal of Biogeography. Article ID 2084256
Sherman, RE., Fahey, TJ. & Howarth, RW. 1998. Soil –Plant interactions in a neotropical mangrove forest: Iron, Phosphorus and Sulfur Dynamics. Oecologia, Vol. 115: 553-563.
Short, KC. & Stauble, AJ. 1967. Outline of geology of Niger Delta. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, 51: 761-779.
Spalding, MD., Blasco, F., & Field, CD. 1997. World Mangrove Atlas. International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems. Okinawa (Japan).
Suwa, R., Deshar, R. & Hagihara. A, 2009. Forest structure of a subtropical mangrove along a river inferred from potential tree height and biomass. Aquatic Botany, 91: 99-104.
Tomlinson, PB. 1986. The Botany of Mangroves. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 419
United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) 2007. Implementation of a public awareness in relation to mangrove depletion and proposed reforestation. Final Report.
Valiela, I., Bowen, JL. & York, JK. 2001. Mangrove forests: one of the world threatened major tropical environments. Bioscience, Vol 51: 10.
Walkley, A. and Black. I.A. 1934. An examination of Degtjareff method for
determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic
acid titration method. Soil Science 37: 29-37.
Wang, Y., Bonynge, G., Nugranad, J., Traber, M., Ngusaru, A., Tobey, J., Hale, L., Bowen, R., & Makota, V. 2003. Remote Sensing of Mangrove Change Along the Tanzania Coast. Marine Geodesy 26: 35-48


Ufuoma Akpovwovwo (Primary Contact)
AkpovwovwoU. (2020) “MANGROVE GROWTH DYNAMICS AND SEDIMENT RELATIONS IN SOUTH WESTERN NIGERIA”, Jurnal Pengelolaan Sumberdaya Alam dan Lingkungan (Journal of Natural Resources and Environmental Management). Bogor, ID, 10(4), pp. 688-698. doi: 10.29244/jpsl.10.4.688-698.

Article Details