Cecep Kusmana


Mangrove forest as a renewable resource must be managed based on sustainable basis in which the benefits of ecological, economic and social from the forest have to equity concern in achieving the optimum forest products and services in fulfill the needs of recent generation without destruction of future generation needs and that does not undesirable effects on the physical and social environment. This Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) practices needs the supporting of sustainability in the development of social, economic and environment (ecological) sounds simultaneously, it should be run by the proper institutional and regulations. In operational scale, SFM need integration in terms of knowledge, technical, consultative of stakeholders, coordination among sectors and other stakeholders, and considerations of ecological inter-relationship in which mangroves as an integral part of both a coastal ecosystem and a watershed (catchment area). Some tools have been developed to measure the performent of SFM, such as initiated by ITTO at 1992 and followed by Ministry of Forestry of Indonesia (1993), CIFOR (1995), LEI (1999), FSC (1999), etc., however, the true nuance of SFM’s performance is not easy to be measured. 


Colfer, C. J. P., R. Prabhu, E. Wollenberg, 1995. Principles, criteria and indicators: applying ockham’s razor to the people-forestry link. Working Paper No. 8. Center for International Forestry Research, Bogor.

Dahuri, R., J. Rais, S. P. Ginting, M. J. Sitepu, 2001. Pengelolaan Sumber Daya Wilayah Pesisir dan Lautan secara Terpadu. PT Pradnya Paramita, Jakarta.

[FAO] Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations,1982. Management and utilization of mangroves in Asia and the Pacific. FAO Environmental Paper 3, FAO, Rome.

[FAO] Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2007. The World’s Mangrove 1980-2005. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.

[FSC] Forest Stewardship Council, 1999. Document 1.2. Principles and Criteria for Forest Stewardship. FSC, A.C., Oaxaca, Mexico.

Hamilton, L. S., S. C. Snedaker (eds.), 1984. Handbooks for mangrove areas management. IUCN-UNESCO, pp. 123.

Harger, J. R. E., 1982. Major problems in the functional analysis of mangroves in Southeast Asia. Paper presented at the symposium on mangrove forest ecosystem productivity, April 20-22, 1982, Bogor.

[ITTO] International Tropical Timber Organization, 1992. Criteria for the Measurement of Sustainable Tropical Forest Management. ITTO Policy Development Series No. 3 ITTO, Yokohama.

[ITTO] International Tropical Timber Organization, 1998. Criteria and Indicators for Sustainable Management of Natural Tropical Forest. ITTO Policy Devlopment Series No. 7. ITTO, Yokohama.

Kathiresan, K., B. L. Bingham, 2001. Biology of mangroves and mangrove ecosystems. Advance in Marine Biology 40, pp. 81-251.

Kusmana, C., 1993. A Study on Mangrove Forest Management Based on Ecological Data in East Sumatra, Indonesia. PhD. Dissertion, Kyoto University, Japan.

Kusmana, C., Istomo, C. Wibowo, S.W. Budi, I.Z. Siregar, T. Tiryana, S. Sukardjo, 2008. Manual of Mangrove Silviculture in Indonesia. Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA), Jakarta.

Kusmana, C., Istomo, C. Wibowo, S.W. Budi, I.Z. Siregar, T. Tiryana, S. Sukardjo,2010. Konservasi dan Pengelolaan Mangrove. Presented on: Konferensi dan Pameran Nasional “Penyelamatan Hutan Pantai dan Peningkatan Kesejahteraan Masyarakat Pesisir”, 23 November 2010.

Lacerda, L. D., J. E. Conde, C. Alarcon, R. Alvarez-León, P. R. Bacon, L. D’Croz, B. Kjerfve, J. Polania, M. Vannucsi, 1993. Mangrove ecosystems of Latin America and the Caribbean: a summary. In: Lecarda, L.D (Ed.), Conservation and sustainable utilization of mangrove forest in Latin America and Africa regions. Part I – Latin America. ITTO/ISME, Okinawa, pp. 1-42.

[LEI] Lembaga Ekolabel Indonesia, 1999. Skala intensitas indikator pengelolaan hutan alam produksi lestari, Pedoman LEI-02. Lembaga Ekolabel Indonesia, Jakarta.

Macnae, W., 1968. A general account of the fauna and flora of mangrove swamps and forests in the Indowest-Pacific region. Adv. Mar. Biol. , pp. 73-270.

Munasinghe, M., 1993. Environmental Economics and Sustainable Development. World Bank Environment Paper No. 3. Washington DC.

[MoF] Ministry of Forestry Republic of Indonesia, 1993. Keputusan Menteri Kehutanan Nomor 252/Kpts-II/93 tentang Kriteria dan Indikator Pengelolaan Hutan Produksi Alam Indonesia secara Lestari, Jakarta.

Namkoong, G., T. Boyle, H.R. Gregorius, H. Joly, O. Savolainen, W. Ratnam, A. Young, 1996. Testing Criteria and Indictors for Assessing the Sustainability of Forest Management: Genetic Criteria and Indicators. Working Paper No. 10. Center for International Forestry Research, Bogor.

Odum, W. E., C. C. McIvor, T. J. Smith, 1982. The ecology of the mangroves of South Florida: a community profile. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of Biological Services, Washington D.C.

Saenger, P., E. J. Hegerl, J. D. S. Davie, 1983. Global status of mangrove ecosystems. IUCN. Comision on Ecology Number 3.

Saenger, P., 2002. Mangrove Ecology, Silviculture and Conservation. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands.

Snedaker, S. C., 1978. Mangroves: Their value and perpetuation. Nature and Resources 14, pp. 6-13.

Stork, N. E., T. J. B. Boyle, V. Dale, H. Eeley, B. Finegan, M. Lawes, N. Manokaran, R. Prabhu, J. Soberon, 1997. Criteria and indicators for assessing the sustainability of forest management: conservation of biodiversity. Working Paper No. 17. Center for International Forestry Research, Bogor.

Suhendang, E., 2002. Pengantar Ilmu Kehutanan. Yayasan Penerbit Fakultas Kehutanan IPB, Bogor.

Tomlinson, P. B., 1986. The Botany of Mangroves. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Vogt, K. A., T. Patel-Weynand, M. Shelton, D.J. Vogt, J.C. Gordon, C.T. Mukumoto, A.S. Suntana, P.A. Roads, 2010. Sustainability Unpacked: Food, Energy and Water for Resilient Environments and Societies. Earthscan, Washington DC.


Cecep Kusmana (Primary Contact)
KusmanaC. (2015) “INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE MANGROVE FOREST MANAGEMENT”, Jurnal Pengelolaan Sumberdaya Alam dan Lingkungan (Journal of Natural Resources and Environmental Management). Bogor, ID, 5(1), p. 1. doi: 10.29244/jpsl.5.1.1.

Article Details