Depolimerisasi Kitosan dari Cangkang Udang dengan Enzim Papain dan Iradiasi Sinar Ultraviolet Depolymerization of Chitosan from Shrimp Shell Using Papain Enzyme and Ultraviolet Light Irradiation

Rizfi Fariz Pari, Dewi Mayangsari, Safrina Dyah Hardiningtyas


Chitosan is a natural polymer with positive charge that is good to be applied in the pharmaceutical field as a drug carrier. However, commercial chitosan has a large molecular weight and low degree of deacetylation, so its application is limited due to its low solubility in water. This study aims to determine the effect of the depolymerization method of two classes of chitosan on the market. The types of chitosan used to produce chitooligosaccharide are pharmaceutical grade and food grade. The method used were UV-C light irradiation (75 minutes), papain enzyme hydrolysis (15 g/L for 16 hours, 40oC and pH 5) and a combination of UV and enzymes. The results showed that the grade of chitosan and the depolymerization method affected the characteristics of the product. The three methods used in pharmaceutical grade chitosan produce chitooligosaccharide which dissolved directly in water with a neutral pH. Chitooligosaccharide had yield of >62%, whiteness degree of 99.33%, molecular weight <5.5 KDa, and degree of deacetylation >85%. Food grade chitosan which has been depolymerized by different methods cannot be dissolved in water with a neutral pH. Food grade chitosan through the combination of UV+enzyme depolymerization has the same deacetylation quality as pharmaceutical grade chitosan.


Abdelmalek, BE, Sila A, Haddar A, Bougatef A, Ayadi MA. 2017. β-Chitin and chitosan from squid gladius: Biological activities of chitosan and its application as clarifying agent for apple juice. International journal of biological macromolecules. 104:953-962
Almanza EA, Delgado RS, Galarza ZV, Hernandez EG, Cocoletzi HH. 2019. Enzymatic depolymerization of chitosan for the preparation of functional membranes. Journal of Chemistry. 1–8.
Amin A, Khairi N, Allo EK. 2019. Sintesis dan karakterisasi kitosan dari limbah cangkang udang sebagai stabilizer terhadap Ag nanopartikel. Fullerene Journal of Chemistry. 4(2):86–91.
Atma Y, Ramdhani H, Mustopa AZ, Pertiwi M, Maisarah R. 2018. Karakteristik fisikokimia gelatin tulang ikan patin (Pangasius sutchi) hasil ekstraksi menggunakan limbah buah nanas. Agritech. 38(1):56–63.
Aziz N, Gufran MFFB, Pitoyo WU, Suhandi. 2017. Pemanfaatan ekstrak kitosan dari limbah sisik ikan bandeng di Selat Makassar pada pembuatan bioplastik ramah lingkungan. Hasanuddin Student Journal. 1(1):56–61.
Azizati Z. 2019. Pembuatan dan karakteristik kitosan kulit udang galah. Walisongo Journal of Chemistry. 2(1):10–16.
Barbosa AI, Coutinho AJ, Costa Lima SA, Reis S. 2019. Marine polysaccharides in pharmaceutical applications: fucoidan and chitosan as key players in the drug delivery match field. Marine Drugs. 17(12):654
Chamidah A, Widiyanti CN, Febiyani NN. 2019. Pemanfaatan kitosan larut air sebagai hand sanitizer antiseptik. Jurnal Perikanan. 21(1):9-16.
Chen RH, Tsaih ML. 1998. Effect of temperature on the intrinsic viscosity and conformation of chitosans in dilute HCl solution. Biological Macromolecules. 23(2):135-141.
Dewatisari WF, Rumiyanti L, Rakhmawati I. 2017. Rendemen dan skrining fitokimia pada ekstrak daun Sansevieria sp.. Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Terapan. 17(3):197-202.
Dompeipen EJ. 2017. Isolasi dan identifikasi kitin dan kitosan dari kulit udang windu (Penaeus monodon) dengan spektroskopi infrared. Majalah Biam. 13(1):31–41.
Domszy JG, Robert GAF. 1985. Evaluation of infrared spectroscopic techniques for analyzing chitosan. Makromolekul Chemical. 186(1):1671–1677.
Dong H, Wang Y, Zhao L, Zhou J, Xia Q, Qiu Y. 2015. Key technologies of enzymatic preparation for DP 6–8 chitooligosaccharides. Journal of Food Process Engineering. 38(4):336–344.
Du XD, Vuong BX. 2019. Study on preparation of water-soluble chitosan with varying molecular weights and its antioxidant activity. Advances in Materials Science and Engineering Hindawi. 1687-8434
Du Y, Zhao Y, Dai S, Yang B. 2009. Preparation of water-soluble chitosan from shrimp shell and its antibacterial activity. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies. 10:103–107.
Fawzya YN, Rahmawati A, Patantis G. 2018. Physicochemical properties of chitooligosaccharide prepared by using chitosanase from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia KPU 2123. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 139:1–8.
Flory PJ. 1953. Principles of Polymer Chemistry. New York (NY): Cornell University Press.
Ghofari MA, Ridlo A, Pramesti R. 2020. Isolasi glukosamin dari limbah cangkang rajungan Portunus pelagicus (Linnaeus,1758) (Malacostraca:Portunidae) dengan hidrolisis asam klorida. Journal of Marine Research. 9(2):151–158.
[GRAS] General Recognition of Safety. 2012. Chitoclear® Shrimp-Derived Chitosan: Food Usage Conditions for General Recognition of Safety. Iceland (IL): GRAS.
Guan G, Azad MAK, Lin Y, Kim SW, Tian Y, Liu G, Wang H. 2019. Biological effects and applications of chitosan and chito-oligosaccharides. Frontiers in Physiology. 10(516):1–10.
Guo Ji X, Lin Chang K, Chen M, Liang ZL, Osman A, Yin H, Ming ZL. 2021. In vitro fermentation of chitooligosaccharides and their effects on human fecal microbial community structure and metabolites. LWT-Food Science and Technology. 144:111224.
Harjanti RS. 2014. Kitosan dari limbah udang sebagai bahan pengawet ayam goreng. Jurnal Rekayasa Proses. 8(1): 12–19.
Hayes M. 2012. Chitin, Chitosan and their derivatives from marine rest raw materials: potential food and pharmaceutical applications. Marine Bioactive Compounds: Sources, Characterization and Applications. 115–128.
Hidayah N, Widyastuti S, Rosmilawati, Saptono W, Handito D. 2014. Pengaruh konsentrasi isopropil alkohol terhadap sifat mikrobiologis dan organoleptik karaginan Eucheuma cottonii. Jurnal Agroteksos. 24(3): 153–158.
Huang J, Yin Z, Wu J. 2020. Covalent attachment of chitosan to graphene via click chemistry for superior antibacterial activity. Material Advances. (1): 579-583.
Ibrahim HM, El-Zairy EMR. 2015. Chitosan as a Biomaterial–Structure, Properties, and Electrospun Nanofibers. Concepts, Compounds and The Alternatives of Antibacterial: Intech. 81–101.
Je JY, Kim SK. 2012. Chitosan as a potential marine nutraceutical. Advances in Food and Nutrition Research. 65:121-137.
Jia Z, Shen H. 2004. Effect of reaction temperature and reaction time on the preparation of low-molecular weight chitosan using phosphoric acid. Carbohydrate Polymers. 49(4):393–396.
Jung WJ, Park RD. 2014. Bioproduction of chitooligosaccharides: present and perspectives. Marine Drugs. 12:5328–5356.
Jonathan ZK, Mohammad RK, Tam Bui, Katherine AC. 1998. Characterization of deacetylated chitosan and chitosan molecular weight review. Canadian Journal of Chemistry. 76(11):1699-1706.
Kaczmarek MB, Swita KS, Li X , Antczak MS, Daroch M. 2019. Enzymatic modifications of chitin, chitosan, and chitooligosaccharides. Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology.
Kim SK. 2018. Healthcare Using Marine Organisms. United States of America (USA): CRC Press.
[KKP] Kementerian Kelautan dan Perikanan. 2021. Ekspor produk perikanan naik 6,6 persen di 2021.
Kumar MY, Ravi A. 2017. Extraction and characterization of chitosan from shrimp waste for application in the feed industry. International Journal of Science, Environment and Technology. 6(4):2548–2557.
Lalenoh BA, Cahyono E. 2018. Karakterisasi kitosan dari limbah rajungan (Portunus pelagicus). Jurnal Ilmiah Tindalung. 4(1): 30–33.
Laokuldilok T, Potivas T, Kanha N, Surawang S, Seesuriychan P, Wangtueai S, Phimolsiripol Y, Regenstein JM. 2017. Physicochemical, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties of chitooligosaccharides produced using three different enzyme treatments. Food Bioscience. 18:28–33.
Lee LF, Lee WK, Maskat MY, Ilias RMD, Aziz SA, Kamarulzaman K, Osman H. 2005. Partial depolymerization of chitosan with the aid of bromelain. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences. 8(1): 3–77.
Li B, Wang L, Xu F, Gang X, Demirci U, Wei D, et al. 2015. Hydrosoluble, UV- crosslinkable and injectable chitosan for patterned cell-laden microgel and rapid transdermal curing hydrogel in vivo. Acta Biomaterialia. 22:59–69.
Liu S, Li K, Xing R, Li P. 2006. Advances in preparation, analysis and biological activities of single chitooligosaccharide. Carbohydrate Polymers. 139:178–190.
Lodhi G, Kim YS, Hwang JW, Kim SK, Jeon YJ, Je JY, Ahn CB, Moon SH, Jeon BT, Park PJ. 2014. Chitooligosaccharide and its derivatives: Preparation and biological applications. BioMed Research International. 1–13.
Miguez N, Kidibule P, Moriano PS, Ballesteros AO, Lobato MF, Plou FJ. 2021. Enzymatic synthesis and characterization of different families of chitooligosaccharides and their bioactive properties. Applied Sciences. 11(3212):1–14.
Montilla A, Ruiz-Matute AI, Corzo N, Giacomini C, Irazoqui G. 2013. Enzymatic generation of chitooligosaccharides from chitosan using soluble and immobilized glycosyltransferase (Branchzyme). Journal Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 61:10360–10367.
Mourya VK, Inamdar NN, Choudhari YM. 2011. Chitooligosaccharides: synthesis, characterization and applications. Polymer science. 53(7):583–612.
[MRC] Medical Research Council. 2013. Color Meter: RGB-1002, Color Analyzer, R, G, B, Hue, Saturation, Luminance.
Najafabadi SAA, Honarkae H, Moghadam M, Mirkhani V, Tahriri M, Tayebi L. 2018. UV irradiation-H2O2 system as an effective combined depolymerization technique to produce oligosaccharides from chitosan. Bio-Design And Manufacturing. 1(1):62–68.
Nasution Z, Agusnar H, Alfian Z, Wirjosentono B. 2013. Pengaruh viskositas kitosan dari berbagai berat molekul terhadap pembuatan kitosan nanopartikel menggunakan ultrasonic bath. Jurnal Teknologi Kimia Unimal. 2(2):68–79.
Nurhikmawati F, Manurung M, Laksmiwati AAIAM. 2014. Penggunaan kitosan dari limbah kulit udang sebagai inhibitor keasaman tuak. Jurnal Kimia. 8(2):191–197.
Nuryadin DFE, Setyaningsih I, Hadiningtyas SD. 2020. Depolimerisasi kitosan menggunakan sinar ultraviolet dan katalis asam klorida. Jurnal Pengolahan Hasil Perikanan Indonesia. 23(3):412–422.
Qin Z, Zhao L. 2019. The History of Chito/Chitin Oligosaccharides and Its Monomer. In: Zhao L (eds) Oligosaccharides of Chitin and Chitosan. Springer (SGP): 3–14.
Pacheco-Torgal F. 2016. Biopolymer and biotech admixtures for eco-efficient construction materials: introduction to biopolymers and biotech admixtures for eco-efficient construction materials. Biopolymer and Biotech admixtures for eco-efficient construction. 1-10
Pal A, Narinder, Ajeet. 2020. Solubility: An overview. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Analysis. 7(4):166–171.
Pan AD, Zeng HY, Alain GBFC, Li YQ. 2015. Enzymolysis of chitosan by papain and its kinetics. Carbohydrate Polymers. 135: 199–206.
Parhi R. 2020. Drug delivery applications of chitin and chitosan: a review. Environmental Chemistry Letters. 18:577-594
Poeloengasih CD, Hernawan, Angwar M. 2008. Isolation and characterization of chitin and chitosan prepared under various processing times. Indonesian Journal of Chemistry. 8(2): 189-192.
Purwanti A, Yusuf M. 2014. Evaluasi proses pengolahan limbah kulit udang untuk meningkatkan mutu kitosan yang dihasilkan. Jurnal Teknologi. 7(1):83–90.
Putri NA, Herlina H, Subagio A. 2018. Karakteristik mocaf (Modified Cassava Flour) berdasarkan metode penggilingan dan lama fermentasi. Jurnal Agroteknologi. 12(1):79–89.
Renuka V, Ravishankar CNR, Krishnamoorthy E, Zynudheen AA. 2021. Comparison of depolymerization of chitosan into chitooligosaccharides from the shrimp shell waste of parapeneopsis stylifera by non-specific enzymes. Research Square. 1–21.
Ridho FA, Riyanto B, Uju. Kitooligosakarida melalui depolimerisasi kitosan dengan hidrogen peroksida untuk aplikasi biopreservatif pindang tradisional. Jurnal Pengolahan Hasil Perikanan Indonesia. 20(3): 536–548.
Sanchez A, Mengibar M, Rivera-Rodriguez G, Moerchbacher B, Acosta N, Heras A. 2017. The effect of preparation processes on the physicochemical characteristics and antibacterial activity of chitooligosaccharides. Carbohydrate Polymers. 157:251–257.
Sanria N, Uju, Suptijah P. 2017. Depolimerisasi kappa karaginan dengan menggunakan peracetic acid. Jurnal Pengolahan Hasil Perikanan Indonesia. 20(3):524–535.
Santoso J, Adiputra KC, Soedirga LC, Tarman K. 2020. Effect of acetic acid hydrolysis on the characteristics of water soluble chitosan. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 414(1):1–8.
Shahidi F, Arachchi JKV, Jeon YJ. Food applications of chitin and chitosans. 1999. Trends in Food Science and Technology 10:37–51.
Sheldon RA, Woodley JM, 2018. Role of Biocatalysis in sustainable chemistry. Chemical Reviews. 118: 801–838.
Shon J, Eo JH, Hwang SJ, Eun JB. 2011. Effect of processing condition on functional properties of collagen powder from skate (Raja kenojei) skin. Food Science and Biotechnology. 20(1):99–106.
Singh RV, Sambyal K, Negi A, Sonwani S, Mahajan R. 2021. Chitinases production: A robust enzyme and its industrial applications. Biocatal Biotransform. 39:161–189.
Sinha S, Chand S, Tripathi P. 2016. Recent progress in chitosanase production of monomer-free chitooligosaccharides: bioprocess strategies and future applications. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology. 180(5):1–17.
Sionkowska A, Planecka A, Lewandowska K, Kaczmarek B, Szarszewska P. 2013. Influence of uv-irradiation on molecular weight of chitosan. Progress on Chemistry and Application of Chitin and its Derivatives. 18:21–28.
Sugiyanti D, Darmadji P. Anggrahini S, Anwar C, Santoso U. 2018. Preparation and characterization of chitosan from Indonesian Tambak Lorok Shrimp shell waste and crab shell waste. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 17(9):446–453.
Tabassum N, Ahmed S, Ali MA. 2021. Review: Chitooligosaccharides and their structural-functional effect on hydrogels. Carbohydrate Polymers. 261:117882.
Venkatachalapathy R, Packirisamy ASB, Ramachandran ACI, Udhyasooriyan LP, Peter MJ, Senthilnathan K, Basheer VA, Muthusamy S. 2020. Assessing the effect of chitosan on pesticide removal in grape juice during clarification by gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Process Biochemistry. 94:305–312.
Wahyuni, Ridhay A, Nurakhirawati. 2015. Pengaruh waktu proses deasetilasi kitin dari cangkang bekicot (Achatina fulica) terhadap derajat deasetilasi. Kovalen. 2(1):1–7.
Walpole RE. 1992. Pengantar Statistika Edisi Ke-3. Jakarta(ID):PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama. 515 hlm.
Wang SM, Huang QZ, Wang QS. 2005. Study on the synergetic degradation of chitosan with ultraviolet light and hydrogen peroxide. Carbohydr Research. 340(1):1143-1147.
Wardhani IK, Badres S, Prasetyaningrum. 2013. Kinetika reaksi depolimerisasi karaginan pada suhu dan pH optimum dengan katalisator asam sulfat. Jurnal Teknologi Kimia dan Industri. 2(4):177–183.
Yang Y, Yu B. 2014. Recent advances in the synthesis of chitooligosaccharides and congeners. Tetrahedron. 70(5):1023–1046.
Yue W, Yao P, Wei Y. 2009. Influence of ultraviolet-irradiated oxygen on depolymerization of chitosan. Polymer Degradation and Stability. 94(5): 851–858.
Yulina R, Winiati W, Kaspiah C, Septiani W, Mulyawan AS, Wahyudi T. 2014. Pengaruh berat molekul kitosan terhadap fiksasi kitosan pada kain kapas sebagai antibakteri. Arena Tekstil. 29(2):81–90.
Xia Z, Wu S, Chen J. 2013. Preparation of water soluble chitosan by hydrolysis using hydrogen peroxide. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 59: 242–245.


Rizfi Fariz Pari (Primary Contact)
Dewi Mayangsari
Safrina Dyah Hardiningtyas
Author Biography

Dewi Mayangsari, IPB University

Departemen Teknologi Hasil Perairan, Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan, IPB University, Jalan Agatis, Kampus IPB Dramaga, Bogor, 16680, (0251) 8622915

Fariz PariR., MayangsariD., & HardiningtyasS. D. (2022). Depolimerisasi Kitosan dari Cangkang Udang dengan Enzim Papain dan Iradiasi Sinar Ultraviolet: Depolymerization of Chitosan from Shrimp Shell Using Papain Enzyme and Ultraviolet Light Irradiation. Jurnal Pengolahan Hasil Perikanan Indonesia, 25(1), 118-131.

Article Details