Proyek Lintas Batas Administrasi: Analisis Partisipasi Publik dalam Proses Perencanaan Ibu Kota Negara Republik Indonesia

  • Rizkiana Sidqiyatul Hamdani Program Studi Ilmu Lingkungan, Sekolah Pascasarjana Universitas Diponegoro, Jalan Imam Bardjo SH, Pleburan, Semarang, Kota Semarang, Jawa Tengah 50241
Keywords: capital city relocation, inclusive planning participatory regional planning, public participation


Administrative Transboundary Project: Public Participation Analysis in Indonesia’s New Capital City Planning Processes

The Central Government of the Republic of Indonesia once again formulated a plan for moving the National Capital (IKN). The existing government centers in DKI Jakarta Province will be moved to North Penajam Paser Regency and Kutai Kartanegara Regency in East Kalimantan Province. As the progress of planning and preparation for the implementation of this discourse, public opinion is still dominated by negative sentiment, one of the escalated issues is public participation. As the core of democracy, public participation in decision making in the Republic of Indonesia is a necessity. This study intends to review the IKN planning process that has been carried out from the perspective of the participation ladder theory. Descriptive qualitative method used by analyzing electronic news (understanding chronological stories of the project) and media social data (public participation and perception). Comparing those data with previous researches were done to increase depth of analysis. The result showed that participatory regional planning process in IKN project is in the degree of tokenism or symbolism. This is hoped to provide evaluation in the implementation of the capital city relocation project, thus could contribute in creating more inclusive planning processes in further implementation stages.


Afzalan, N., Sanchez, T. W., & Evans-Cowley, J. (2017). Creating smarter cities: Considerations for selecting online participatory tools. Cities, 67, 21–30.

Alamsyah, N. (2019, Desember 9). Standar Etika Pemindahan Ibu Kota. Kolom Diambil dari

Alasuutari, P. (2010). The rise and relevance of qualitative research. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 13 (2), 139–155.

Alizadeh, T., Sarkar, S., & Burgoyne, S. (2019). Capturing citizen voice online: Enabling smart participatory local government. Cities, 95, 102400.

Andjarwati, A. (2019). Pemindahan ibukota negara dalam perspektif hukum agraria, Yogyakarta: Universitas Gadjah Mada. Diambil dari

Andreas, H., Zainal Abidin, H., Pradipta, D., Anggreni Sarsito, Di., & Gumilar, I. (2018). Insight look the subsidence impact to infrastructures in Jakarta and Semarang area; Key for adaptation and mitigation. MATEC Web of Conferences, 147(June 2007), 08001.

Arnstein, S. R. (1969). A Ladder Of Citizen Participation. Journal of the American Planning Association, 35 (4), 216–224.

Asdak, C., Supian, S., & Subiyanto. (2018). Watershed management strategies for flood mitigation: A case study of Jakarta’s flooding. Weather and Climate Extremes, 21, 117–122.

Aspers, P., & Corte, U. (2019). What is Qualitative in Qualitative Research. Qualitative Sociology, 42 (2), 139–160.

Bachri, B. S. (2010). Meyakinkan Validitas Data Melalui Triangulasi Pada Penelitian Kualitatif. Teknologi Pendidikan, 10 (1), 46–62.

Bajracharya, B., & Khan, S. (2020). Urban Governance in Australia: A Case Study of Brisbane City. In New Urban Agenda in Asia-Pacific, 225–250.

Balz, V., & Zonneveld, W. (2020). The Institutionalisation of a Creative Practice: Changing Roles of Regional Design in Dutch National Planning. In Shaping Regional Futures, Cham: Springer International Publishing, 27–42.

Bappenas RI. (2019a). Dampak Ekonomi dan Skema Pembiayaan Pemindahan Ibu Kota Negara. In Dialog Nasional II: Menuju Ibu Kota Masa Depan: Smart Green and Beautiful. Diambil dari Menteri PPN - Dampak Ekonomi dan Skema Pembiayaan IKN_edit IKN 5.pdf

Bappenas RI. (2019b, Juli 29). Dialog Nasional Pemindahan Ibu Kota Negara: Kalimantan Tengah Paparkan Kesiapan Aspek Lingkungan Hidup, Sosial, dan Budaya. Diambil 18 Januari 2020, dari

Bappenas RI. (2019c, Agustus 20). Bicara di Youth Talks: Yuk Pindah Ibu Kota, Menteri Bambang Jelaskan Pentingnya Pemindahan Ibu Kota Negara bagi Kaum Muda. Kementerian Bappenas RI. Diambil dari

Bedford, T., Clark, J., & Harrison, C. (2002). Limits to new public participation practices in local land use planning. The Town Planning Review, 73 (3), 311–331.

Bonsón, E., Perea, D., & Bednárová, M. (2019). Twitter as a tool for citizen engagement: An empirical study of the Andalusian municipalities. Government Information Quarterly, 36 (3), 480–489.

Brabham, D. C. (2009). Crowdsourcing the Public Participation Process for Planning Projects. Planning Theory, 8 (3), 242–262.

Cardullo, P., & Kitchin, R. (2019). Being a ‘citizen’ in the smart city: up and down the scaffold of smart citizen participation in Dublin, Ireland. GeoJournal, 84 (1), 1–13.

Chaussard, E., Amelung, F., Abidin, H., & Hong, S. H. (2013). Sinking cities in Indonesia: ALOS PALSAR detects rapid subsidence due to groundwater and gas extraction. Remote Sensing of Environment, 128, 150–161.

CNN Indonesia. (2019, April 29). Sejarah Pemindahan Ibu Kota Sejak Era Hindia Belanda. Diambil 18 Januari 2020, dari

Costa, D., Burlando, P., & Priadi, C. (2016). The importance of integrated solutions to flooding and water quality problems in the tropical megacity of Jakarta. Sustainable Cities and Society, 20, 199–209.

Cox, R. (2010). Environmental and the Public Sphere, 2 ed, SAGE Publications, Inc.

Dahiya, B., & Das, A. (2020). New Urban Agenda in Asia-Pacific: Governance for Sustainable and Inclusive Cities. In New Urban Agenda in Asia-Pacific, 3–36.

Das, A., & Dahiya, B. (2020). Towards Inclusive Urban Governance and Planning: Emerging Trends and Future Trajectories. In New Urban Agenda in Asia-Pacific, 353–384.

Dietz, T., & Stern, P. C. (Ed.). (2008). Public Participation in Environmental Assessment and Decision Making, National Academies Press.

Donaghy, M. M. (2020). Participation Meets Politics: Political Shifts and the Longevity of Participatory Governance Institutions. PS: Political Science & Politics, 53 (1), 6–9.

Du, G., Kray, C., & Degbelo, A. (2020). Interactive Immersive Public Displays as Facilitators for Deeper Participation in Urban Planning. International Journal of Human–Computer Interaction, 36 (1), 67–81.

Fanara, D. (2006). Angel of East Indies: Biography of the Van Dooremolen Family, iUniverse. Diambil dari

hl=id&id=Vh0j32NRF98C&dq=bandung+as+capital+of+east+indies&q=Bandung+capital+East+Indies#v=snippet&q=Bandung capital East Indies&f=false

Farinosi, M., Fortunati, L., O’Sullivan, J., & Pagani, L. (2019). Enhancing classical methodological tools to foster participatory dimensions in local urban planning. Cities, 88, 235–242.

Firman, T., Surbakti, I. M., Idroes, I. C., & Simarmata, H. A. (2011). Potential climate-change related vulnerabilities in Jakarta: Challenges and current status. Habitat International, 35 (2), 372–378.

Goedkoop, F., & Devine-Wright, P. (2016). Partnership or placation? the role of trust and justice in the shared ownership of renewable energy projects. Energy Research and Social Science, 17, 135–146.

Goetz, A., & Gaventa, J. (2001). Bringing citizen voice and client focus into service delivery, Brighton. Diambil dari

Goh, K. (2019). Urban Waterscapes: The Hydro-Politics of Flooding in a Sinking City. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 43 (2), 250–272.

Grover, P., Kar, A. K., Dwivedi, Y. K., & Janssen, M. (2019). Polarization and acculturation in US Election 2016 outcomes – Can twitter analytics predict changes in voting preferences. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 145, 438–460.

Halberstadt, A. G., & Green, L. R. (1993). Social attention and placation theories of blushing. Motivation and Emotion, 17 (1), 53–64.

Harris, L. R., Bessinger, M., Dayaram, A., … Niekerk, L. Van. (2019). Advancing land-sea integration for ecologically meaningful coastal conservation and management. Biological Conservations, 237, 81–89.

Hassenforder, E., Smajgl, A., & Ward, J. (2015). Towards understanding participatory processes: Framework, application and results. Journal of Environmental Management, 157, 84–95.

He, Q., & Silliman, B. R. (2019). Climate Change, Human Impacts, and Coastal Ecosystems in the Anthropocene. Current Biology, 29 (19), R1021–R1035.

Hermawan. (2019, Agustus 24). Soekarno Gagal Pindahkan Ibu Kota ke Palangkaraya. Diambil 18 Januari 2020, dari

Huynh, D. (2020). In Making Mega Cities in Asia, 49–69.

Janti, N. (2019). Rencana Ibukota Pindah ke Surabaya. Diambil 18 Januari 2020, dari

Johansyah, M., Rupang, P., Apriando, T., … Prayoga, A. P. (2019). Ibu Kota Baru Buat Siapa?, WALHI, dkk. Diambil dari Tahunan/FINAL IKN REPORT.pdf

Jones, B. C. (2018). Constitutions and bills of rights: Invigorating or placating democracy? Legal Studies, 38(3), 339–359.

Kalra, S., Pathak, V., & Jena, B. (2013). Qualitative research. Perspectives in Clinical Research, 4 (3), 192.

Kemensetneg RI. (2019, Agustus 26). Presiden Jokowi: Ibu Kota Baru di Penajam Paser Utara dan Kutai Kartanegara. Kementerian Sekretarian Negara Republik Indonesia. Diambil dari

Kementerian PUPR RI. (2011, Maret 11). Mengurangi Beban Jakarta dengan Pemindahan Pusat Pemerintahan. Diambil 18 Januari 2020, dari

Kementerian PUPR RI. (2019, Desember 23). Konsep Nagara Rimba Nusa Jadi Pemenang Lomba Desain Ibu Kota Negara Baru. Diambil dari

Latief, H., Putri, M. R., Hanifah, F., Afifah, I. N., Fadli, M., & Ismoyo, D. O. (2018). Coastal Hazard Assessment in Northern part of Jakarta. Procedia Engineering, 212, 1279–1286.

Mapfumo, L., & Mutereko, S. (2020). Contextualising Stakeholder Participation in The Governance Of Harare’s Informal Economy Sector. International Journal of Economics and Finance Studies, 12 (1), 103–118.

Mayer, H., Sager, F., Kaufmann, D., & Warland, M. (2016). Capital city dynamics: Linking regional innovation systems, locational policies and policy regimes. Cities, 51, 11–20.

Menzel, S., & Buchecker, M. (2013). Does Participatory Planning Foster the Transformation Toward More Adaptive Social-Ecological Systems? Ecology and Society, 18 (1), 13.

Mueller, J., Lu, H., Chirkin, A., Klein, B., & Schmitt, G. (2018). Citizen Design Science: A strategy for crowd-creative urban design. Cities, 72, 181–188.

Neu, D., Saxton, G., Rahaman, A., & Everett, J. (2019). Twitter and social accountability: Reactions to the Panama Papers. Critical Perspectives on Accounting, 61, 38–53.

Nugroho, E. (2013, Januari 18). Palangkaraya Sering Disebut Tempat Pengganti Ibu Kota Negara. Diambil 18 Januari 2020, dari

Nurhidayah, L., & McIlgorm, A. (2019). Coastal adaptation laws and the social justice of policies to address sea level rise: An Indonesian insight. Ocean and Coastal Management, 171, 11–18.

O’Brien, F. A., Meadows, M., & Griffiths, S. (2017). Serialisation and the use of Twitter: Keeping the conversation alive in public policy scenario projects. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 124, 26–40.

Park, H., Kwon, S., & Hadi, S. (2016). Land Subsidence Survey and Policy Development in Pantai Mutiara, Jakarta Bay, Indonesia. Journal of Coastal Research, 75 (sp1), 1447–1451.

Prattama, A. N. (2019, April 30). Wacana Pemindahan Ibu Kota pada Era Soekarno dan Sebelumnya.. Kompas. Diambil dari

Rania, Q. (2017). Using Social Hub Media to Expand Public Participation in Municipal Urban Plans. Procedia Engineering, 198, 34–42.

Rawat, P., & Yusuf, J.-E. (Wie). (2020). Participatory Mapping, E-Participation, and E-Governance. In Leveraging Digital Innovation for Governance, Public Administration, and Citizen Services: Emerging Research and Opportunities, IGI Global, 147–175.

Renald, A., Tjiptoherijanto, P., Suganda, E., & Djakapermana, R. D. (2016). Toward Resilient and Sustainable City Adaptation Model for Flood Disaster Prone City: Case Study of Jakarta Capital Region. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 227, 334–340.

Riana, F. (2019, April 30). Rencana Pemindahan Ibu Kota Dari Era Soekarno Hingga Jokowi. Tempo. Diambil dari

Rim, H., Lee, Y., & Yoo, S. (2019). Polarized public opinion responding to corporate social advocacy: Social network analysis of boycotters and advocators. Public Relations Review, 101869.

Salim, W., & Negara, S. D. (2016). Why is the High-Speed Rail Project so Important to Indonesia. ISEAS Yusof Ishak Institute, (16), 1–10.

Sanoff, H. (2005). Participatory Planning Revisited. Journal of Architectural and Planning Research, 22 (2), 179–180.

Seetharam Sridhar, K., Gadgil, R., & Dhingra, C. (2020). Good Governance in the Transparency, Accountability, Public Participation and Capacity (TAP-C) Framework. In Paving the Way for Better Governance in Urban Transport, Singapore: Springer Singapore, 1–18.

Siregar, C. N., & Rahmansyah, S. (2019). Persepsi dan partisipasi masyarakat terhadap implementasi program jabar digital dalam akun instagram ridwan kamil sebuah kajian sosio-digital. Jurnal Sosioteknologi, 18 (3), 369–380.

Syamsudin, F., & Lestari, S. (2017). Dampak Pemanasan Pulau Perkotaan (Urban Heat Island) Pada Peningkatan Tren Curah Hujan Ekstrem Dan Aerosol Di Megapolitan Jakarta Sejak Tahun 1986. Jurnal Teknologi Lingkungan, 18 (1), 54.

Takagi, H., Esteban, M., Mikami, T., & Fujii, D. (2016). Projection of coastal floods in 2050 Jakarta. Urban Climate, 17, 135–145.

Takamura, Y., & Tone, K. (2003). A comparative site evaluation study for relocating Japanese government agencies out of Tokyo. Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, 37 (2), 85–102.

Taufik, M. (2013, September 10). Sampai di mana tim pemindahan ibu kota bekerja? Diambil 18 Januari 2020, dari

The Editors of Encycopedia Britannica. (2019). Humanistic Psychology. In Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, inc. Diambil dari

Tseng, M. L., Lin, C., Remen Lin, C. W., Wu, K. J., & Sriphon, T. (2019). Ecotourism development in Thailand: Community participation leads to the value of attractions using linguistic preferences. Journal of Cleaner Production, 231, 1319–1329.

United Nations Industrial Development Organization. (2015). Industrial Development Report 2016: The Role of Technology and Innovation in Inclusive and Sustainable Industrial Development, Vienna.

Widowati, H. (2019, April 30). Wacana Pemindahan Ibu Kota Negara, dari Era Soekarno hingga Jokowi. Katadata. Diambil dari

Wu, F. (2007). Re-orientation of the city plan: Strategic planning and design competition in China. Geoforum, 38 (2), 379–392.

Yaqub, U., Chun, S. A., Atluri, V., & Vaidya, J. (2017). Analysis of political discourse on twitter in the context of the 2016 US presidential elections. Government Information Quarterly, 34 (4), 613–626.

Zhang, S. (2019). Public participation in the Geoweb era: Defining a typology for geo-participation in local governments. Cities, 85, 38–50.

Zhu, A. Y. F., Chan, A. L. S., & Chou, K. L. (2019). Creative social media use and political participation in young people: The moderation and mediation role of online political expression. Journal of Adolescence, 77, 108–117.

Zuraya, N., & Pratiwi, I. (2020, Maret 3). Tiga Negara Tawarkan Bantuan Desain Ibu Kota Baru. Diambil 19 Januari 2020, dari

How to Cite
HamdaniR. S. (2020). Proyek Lintas Batas Administrasi: Analisis Partisipasi Publik dalam Proses Perencanaan Ibu Kota Negara Republik Indonesia. Journal of Regional and Rural Development Planning (Jurnal Perencanaan Pembangunan Wilayah Dan Perdesaan), 4(1), 43-62.