The Relationship of Education to the Trend of Fresh Graduates Working Comparison Before and During the Covid 19 Pandemic (In 2019 and 2020) in Indonesia University of Indonesia

Sarah Nurlaily


The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic is very much felt by fresh graduates in the world, including in Indonesia. The number of fresh graduates with secondary and higher education who work has decreased in 2020 compared to 2019. The method used in this study is multilevel regression because it uses hierarchical data at the individual and macro levels. Controlled by individual characteristics and the Provincial Minimum Wage (UMP), the tendency to work for fresh graduates from college graduates increased in 2020 compared to 2019, but the tendency to work was still lower than high school graduates. Universities need to improve so that the graduates produced are in accordance with the needs in the job market. The quantity and quality of universities cannot be separated.


Ahmad, R., & Azim, P. (2010). Youth Population and the Labour Market of Pakistan: a Micro Level Study. Pakistan Economic and Social Review, 48(2), 183–208.

Aliyudin, F. (2017). Persalinan Wanita Usia Subur Di Indonesia Menggunakan Data Sdki 2012 ( Aplikasi Analisis Regresi Logistik Biner Multilevel ). 2012, 33–46.

Baah-Boateng, W. (2015). Unemployment in Ghana: a cross sectional analysis from demand and supply perspectives. African Journal of Economic and Management Studies, 6(4), 402–415.

Becker, G. S. (1962). Investment in Humancapital: A Theoretical Analysis. The Journal of Political Economy, 70(5), 9–49.

Belchamber, G. (2004). Minimum wages and youth employment. In Labour education. No. 136 (Vol.

Bhorat, H., Cassim, A., Kanbur, R., Stanwix, B., & Yua, D. (2016). Minimum wages and youth: The case of South Africa. Journal of African Economies, 25(June 2019), i61–i102.

Borjas, G. J. (2014). Labor Economics (Seventh Ed). Mc Graw Hill Education.

BPS. (2020). Keadaan Ketenagakerjaan Indonesia Agustus 2020. In Badan Pusat Statistik: Vol.
No.86/11/T (Issue 91).

Handayani, T. (2015). Relevansi Lulusan Perguruan Tinggi Di Indonesia Dengan Kebutuhan Tenaga Kerja Di Era Global. Jurnal Kependudukan Indonesia, 10(1), 53.

Hooley, T. (2020). Covid-19 : Global impacts on graduate recruitment (Issue July).

Kemenristekdikti. (2019). Statistik Pendidikan Tinggi (Higher Education Statistics) 2019. In Pusdatin Kemenristekdikti.

Kementerian Ketenagakerjaan. (2020). Analisis Dampak Pandemi Covid-19 Terhadap Perluasan Kesempatan Kesempatan Kerja dan Implikasinya.

Mankiw, N. G. (2020). Principles of Economics Ninth Edition. Lean Assembly; Cengage.

Nachrowi, D. N. U. (2002). Penggunaan Teknik Ekonometrika (Edisi 1).

Song, X., & Riddell, W. C. (2011). The Impact of Education on Unemployment Incidence and Re- employment Success: Evidence from the U.S. Labour Market. Labour Economics, 18(47), 453– 463.

Wikipedia. (2021). Pemuda.

Wittekind, A., Raeder, S., & Grote, G. (2010). A longitudinal study of determinants of perceived employability. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 31(4), 566–586.


Sarah Nurlaily (Primary Contact)
Sarah Nurlaily. (2021). The Relationship of Education to the Trend of Fresh Graduates Working Comparison Before and During the Covid 19 Pandemic (In 2019 and 2020) in Indonesia: University of Indonesia. JURNAL EKONOMI DAN KEBIJAKAN PEMBANGUNAN, 10(1), 44-54.

Article Details