Extreme Rainfall Analysis in the Bengawan Solo Watershed, Java

Perdinan, Indri Hapsari, Amsari Mudzakir Setiawan


As the largest watershed in Java Island, the Bengawan Solo watershed has experienced recurrent hydrometeorological hazards, leading to infra-structure damage, casualties, and environmental degradation. Research on extreme rainfall causing the hazards in the Bengawan Solo watershed is still limited. This study examines extreme rainfall events by analyzing daily rainfall data (1991-2020) at three observation stations namely Musuk, Tinap, and Lowayu, which represent the upstream, middle, and downstream of the Bengawan Solo watershed. The Extreme Value Theory (EVT) using the Block Maxima approach with a Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) method was used to determine the rainfall return period of 5, 10, 20, 30, and 50-year. We applied the Mann-Kendall test to assess the annual trends of extreme rainfall indices recommended by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI). The results found that the highest estimated annual maximum of daily rainfall was in Musuk station (226.7 mm), followed by Tinap station (159.3 mm) and Lowayu station (149.4 mm). While no significant trend was observed for Musuk, other stations showed a significant trend for the decrease of the daily rainfall intensity, the increase of the number of annual rainy days, the decrease of the annually maximum amount of five consecutive precipitation days, and the increase of the annually number of consecutive wet days. There is also an increase in the maximum amount of annual rainfall for one day (Rx1day) at Lowayu station, which indicates a higher risk of disaster due to high rainfall. Additionally, an increasing trend in the total annual rainfall (PRCPTOT) at Musuk, Tinap, and Lowayu stations suggests a greater potential for water storage to meet water needs in these areas.


perdinan@apps.ipb.ac.id (Primary Contact)
Indri Hapsari
Amsari Mudzakir Setiawan
Perdinan, HapsariI., & Mudzakir SetiawanA. (2024). Extreme Rainfall Analysis in the Bengawan Solo Watershed, Java. Agromet, 38(1), 36-48. https://doi.org/10.29244/j.agromet.38.1.36-48

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